In the case of Cavendish Square Holdings BV v Makdessi; ParkingEye Ltd/Beavis  UKSC 67 told the Court that a sanction clause can be applied if: How to design or use a sanction clause may vary depending on the type of contract you are drawing. Some examples are cited below: on the other hand, the penalty has a deterrent effect. If the worker is aware of the financial risk associated with a breach of his obligations, he is more likely to abstain from it rather than the obligation defined in the contract, without a specific sanction for his violation. The contractual penalty can therefore, from the employer`s point of view, be seen as a protection against the worker`s non-compliance with his obligations. Nowhere has this principle been more clearly put into play than with regard to the issue of punitive clauses. Overall, a sanction clause is a contractual clause that imposes an excessive fine on a party engaged in a contract that is disproportionate to the harm suffered by the innocent party. Punitive clauses are generally not applicable in English law. During the review of the issue over the years, the courts have distinguished between an amount that constitutes a true estimate of the damage (enforceable clause on liquidated damages) and an amount disproportionate to the potential damages that may be caused to the innocent party (non-applicable penalty clause). Since the assertion that a clause constitutes a sanction is generally seen as a defence of a contractual claim, there is no practical difference. However, if a party disbursed such a clause and then requested the return of the money paid, it would clearly be essential to determine whether the clause was simply unenforceable (in this case, the money could not be recovered) or not (in this case, it could be).  The doctrine of sanction applies not only to ”classic” liquidation clauses that provide for the payment of a sum of money in the event of a breach of contract, but may also apply to other clauses which provide: on the whole, a penalty clause is a contractual provision that levies an excessive amount of money that has nothing to do with the actual harm suffered by a failing party.
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Kilometrit 2015: 1253 (5.9.)2007: 907
Kalusto:Kona Jake the Snake 2010
Kona Paddy Wagon 2011
Kona HeiHei 29 2012